Give thanks in ALL things everywhere !
“Thanksgiving Day is a great time to remember, and share with others, the too-little-known story of how the Pilgrims discovered and embraced the power of individual incentives and private property — and how doing this saved them from looming starvation and death. Historian Nathaniel Philbrick has won numerous prestigious awards for his books. His acclaimed 2007 book Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War was a New York Times Bestseller, a finalist for both the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in History and the Los Angeles Times Book Award, and was named one of the ten “Best Books of the Year” by the New York Times Book Review.
A passage from that book succinctly tells the story of how free enterprise principles and incentives saved the Pilgrims.
“The fall of 1623 marked the end of Plymouth’s debilitating food shortages. For the last two planting seasons, the Pilgrims had grown crops communally — the approach first used at Jamestown and other English settlements. But as the disastrous harvest of the previous fall had shown, something drastic needed to be done to increase the annual yield.
“In April, [Plymouth Colony governor William] Bradford had decided that each household should be assigned its own plot to cultivate, with the understanding that each family kept whatever it grew.
“The change in attitude was stunning. Families were now willing to work much harder than they had ever worked before. In previous years, the men had tended the fields while the women tended the children at home.
“‘The women now went willingly into the field,’ Bradford wrote, ‘and took their little ones with them to set corn.’”
“The Pilgrims had stumbled on the power of capitalism. Although the fortunes of the colony still teetered precariously in the years ahead, the inhabitants never again starved.”
Governor Bradford tells the story himself in his book History of Plymouth Plantation, taken from his journals kept between 1630 and 1651, and recognized today as an American classic. Bradford describes the problems of the communal system (spelling has been modernized):
“For this community [of food and property] . . . was found to breed much confusion and discontentment, and retard much employment that would have been to their benefit and comfort . . .
“For the young men that were most able and fit for labor and service did repine that they should spend their time and strength to work for other men’s wives and children without any recompense. The strong . . . had no more in division . . . than he that was weak and not able to do a quarter the other could; this was thought injustice. The aged and graver men to be ranked and equalized in labors and victuals, clothes, etc . . . thought it some indignity and disrespect unto them. And men’s wives to be commanded to do service for other men, as dressing their meat, washing their clothes, etc., they deemed it a kind of slavery, neither could many husbands well brook it.”
Bradford then describes the dramatic results of the shift to private plots and individual incentives:
“This had very good success; for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corn was planted than otherwise would have been by any means the Governor or any other could use, and saved him a great deal of trouble, and gave far better content. The women now went willingly into the field, and took their little ones with them to set corn, which before would allege weakness and inability, whom to have compelled would have been thought great tyranny and oppression.”
As we celebrate Thanksgiving this year, we should remember that our great abundance today is based upon our system of private property rights and free enterprise. Principles that the Pilgrims discovered for themselves, in rudimentary form, and began putting into practice nearly four hundred years ago.
Those principles saved their lives. Eventually, they made America the freest and most abundant country in human history. Today they offer the promise of still greater blessings to come.
And that’s something to be very thankful for — this and every Thanksgiving.”
Obsessed with my Bali Body natural tanning and body oil! Bali Body is a luxe 100% natural tanning and body oil, which will give you a deep golden glow while hydrating your skin. The plant-based oil is formulated with organic, natural and raw ingredients only. Bali Body natural tanning and body oil can be used as a hydrating night time mask or as a vital part of your daily skin care ritual. Say hello to an all natural tanning and body oil free from synthetic chemicals, sulphates, petro-chemicals, parabens, artificial fragrance and mineral oils.
Cocos Nucifera (Coconut):
Due to the presence of medium chain fatty acids like Capric Acid, Caprylic Acid, Lauric Acid and Vitamin-E Coconut Oil nourishes the skin as well as offering protection via the stable saturated fats contained in this miracle oil. Among the many healing properties, Coconut oil soothes and conditions as well as assisting in the reduction of cellulite and premature ageing.
Vitis Vinifera (Grape Seed) Grape Seed oil can treat acne, reduce dark under eye circles, moisturise and tighten your skin.
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Jojoba has an extensive list of organic and mineral properties. This amazing natural goodness fights facial lines, skin scarring and fatty tissue. Jojoba Oil is extremely beneficial in challenging skin circumstances such as acne, eczema and psoriasis. This plant-based oil improves the natural development of collagen, whilst naturally fighting the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Another successful market at the Fashion Industry Gallery! Loving Lucky Star Jewels, Lisa Marie Swimwear and Fidelity Denim. A big thank you to F.I.G’s Featured Guest Designer, Emily Schuman, author of Cupcakes and Cashmere!
Figlets serve Bloody Mary’s wearing gentle fawn dresses and kimonos by Michaela available in Jason Zelcer Showroom and booties by Shop Dolce Vita! Cheers!
The ivory carvings of the al-Andalus art world demonstrate the exquisite and elaborate lifestyle of the nobility of the Umayyad court. Today, these artistic objects have sparked many arguments concerning their purpose and interpretation among art historians. The ivory caskets and pyxes from the tenth- and eleventh-century al-Andalus court presented in the articles, Circular Versions of Fertility and Punishment: Caliphal Ivory Caskets from al-Andalus by Fancisco Prado-Vilar and Ivory Gifts for Women in Caliphal Cordoba: Marriage, Maternity and Sensuality by Noelia Silva Santa-Cruz, demonstrate their complex importance and influence over men and women of the royal court and introduce the gift-giving practice within the caliphate’s immediate circle.
In the Prado-Vilar article, the role and understanding of luxury portable objects are perceived through their creation, function and fortune. Prado-Vilar explains four important characteristics of understanding these objects: one, they are products of, designed for and distributed in the court; two, they often bear inscriptions that indentify them with an individual, using names and dates as basic features of decoration; three, their portability, exclusive to the court or as gifts to foreigners, which in that case, was a condition carefully considered in their featured design; and fourth, their preservation by being given new functionalities in Christian Churches. Political strategy and iconography played a large role in the decoration of courtly objects during caliphal Cordoba, as the forefront issue was the succession of the caliphate. These objects performed an internal and external system of political propaganda. While the distribution of monumental iconographic objects within the court projected the authority of the hierarchy, this message was conveyed in foreign relations by diplomatic exchange of objects between competing powers too. In certain instances, even Christians received caliphal objects, which led to their change in functionality and preservation.
Prado-Vilar writes, “Love, death, ambition, fear and betrayal are some of the themes one encounters behind the scenes at the court of the al-Andalusian caliph al-Hakam II (r. 961-76) in the study of some remarkable pieces of ivory craftsmanship”. Specific motifs convey the principle iconography of heroization in the ivory decoration. The casket from Museo de Navarra, Pamplona, which dates to 1004-5 (Fig. 6), displays a court scene. The lion throne, the cup and a flowering branch held by the ruler, all seen in the details, are principle features of herozation iconography. Dorothy G. Shepherd identifies the center figure as a representation of the Umayyad Caliph, Hisham II, of Spain. The lion represents the ruler’s divine journey of apotheosis; the cup and branch symbolize the New Year’s feast of Dionysius, motifs of nature and extravagant dining. The scene includes the additional luxuries of banquets, musicians, lutanists and shepherds The eagle and the palm tree are other popular representations of the power, authority and security of the ruling lineage of the caliphate. Other depictions of the same scene show the caliph on the lion throne without facial hair; this intention is to specify the youth of the ruler, Abd al-Rahman, as the heir to the caliphate and to secure the succession of the throne within the court. Objects could contain detail that combines the message of political authority with the warning against any potential threat of breaking it. The messages detailed in courtly objects not only possess aesthetic motifs but also assert political agenda.
In the case of luxury objects gifted to women of the court, which is found in both articles, women had no authority to commission works due to their lack of connection to court workshops. Therefore, only courtly men had exclusive access to the designers. Men saw gifting these intricately decorated objects as methodology of honoring the women of the court. While arabesques and vegetal motifs were prominent decorative techniques in Islamic artistic and architectural design, the motifs have been interpreted as representing the “flora of paradise, the fertility ever-present in the proximity of God” (Prado-Vilar 21), but rightly also the fertility of women. Exemplified in the designs of the Great Mosque of Cordoba or the Umayyad Great Mosque of Damascus, these motifs transferred to play a role as a decorative device of portable objects. While the design serves aesthetic purposes, it celebrates the female function of motherhood and fertility. Caskets and pyxis serve the function of containers, their decoration deepens their representation of the female figure as obvious metaphors for the womb and breast during motherhood. However, the Santa-Cruz article provides a counterargument for this interpretation, stating that the connection of plant-women-fertility does not work exclusively, the arabesque was generally used in architectural commissions or luxury objects as gifts for both sexes by the caliph. The objects celebrating marriages and births hold a contradiction between the fertility of women and the range of motifs used in the decorative detail of the containers. The floral motif would then symbolize the genderless caliph courtly nature and surroundings.
The Santa-Cruz article emphasizes the importance of gift-giving practice within the Umayyad court. Ivory objects, dedicated to women of the caliphate’s internal circle, highlight the significance of the role of women during the caliphate rule. The decorative boxes display motifs of sensuality, eroticism, nuptial ceremonies, motherhood and affection expressed to women of society. Santa-Cruz notes the religious aspect of gift giving as amounting to the exchange of love, according to the principles of Muhammad. Santa-Cruz says in the words of Muhammad, “use them (gifts) as a means to open both doors and souls, ostensibly locked away.” In lieu of this, gifting from the caliph was carefully controlled. Any suggestion of having the caliph’s favor could create potential dangers. The article categorizes the objects with two functions: gifts of generosity and gifts of favor. Gifts of generosity are not only for the recipient, rulers or foreign rulers, but also for the public eye to display the power and respectful diplomatic practice of the caliph. Recipients of gifts of favor include political dignitaries, prominent players of the court, military figures and members of the royal family or immediate circle (wives or haram). These gifts would ultimately allude to the wealth and luxury of the caliphate by filling the kingdom with the artistic works. Caskets could be made from metals, ivory, wood and other substances and decorated with elaborate arabesque carvings or further decorated with precious gemstones or separate artistry pieces. The carvings, as mentioned above, would represent floral and animal motifs to further represent heavenly paradise of the Islamic religion. For an example, the pyxis of Zamora, given to the concubine mother of Abd al-Rahman III’s first-born son, demonstrates the respect between the caliph and his princess. The specific pyxis is a solid, large piece, with a domed lid; this structure is particularly impressive to master since elephant tusk is difficult to round. Although, Caliphs had many offspring and wives, the gift of pyxis and beautiful containers, mainly used for perfume and cosmetics, to women of the inner caliphate circle shows the importance and role of women during the time.
One thing is for certain, as gathered from the two texts, medieval art carries an unsolvable problem; while it can be interpreted through metaphorical and ironic analysis, these ancient portable objects lack textual evidence of their “true” meaning. This gives room for communicative structure and comprehension of the artist’s true message via their design. Art historians must be able to understand the circumstances of the era in order to reason about beliefs and intensions of other artists. The two articles, Circular Versions of Fertility and Punishment: Caliphal Ivory Caskets from al-Andalus by Fancisco Prado-Vilar and Ivory Gifts for Women in Caliphal Cordoba: Marriage, Maternity and Sensuality by Noelia Silva Santa-Cruz, play off of each other in emphasizing interpretation and purpose of these objects. The beautiful ivory containers act as a window into the private world of the caliphate court, explaining not only political and diplomatic relationships but personal and romantic relationships.
The “Spirit and Matter” exhibit at the Dallas Museum of art, displays unique and intricate masterpieces from the Keir collection of Islamic art. An ewer, which dates to the late 10th to early 11th century in Fatimid, Egypt (969–1171), caught my eye while visiting the exhibit. When I saw it, not only did I appreciate its beauty in craftsmanship, but also I immediately envisioned its place within the private chambers of the caliph harem. The dazzling ewer is about 12 inches in height and roughly the same in circumference. Its body is made of carved rock crystal between a gold base and spout which are both decorated with red, green and white arabesque designs. The gold mount, dating to the 19th century is credited to Frenchman, Jean-Valentin Morel (Sevres, 1854). This object is unique in its substance; rock crystal is the purest form of silica mineral quartz. The large size of the stone is rare and therefore increases the value of this piece. “Only seven rock crystal ewers of this caliber from the entire medieval Islamic world are known, and this ewer is the only one of its type in the United States. Its style reflects that of a ewer inscribed with the name of the Fatimid Caliph al-Aziz (r. 975–996) in the treasury of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice” (DMA archives). The crystal designs, about 1 centimeter in depth, depict natural and floral motifs as well as animals. On the left side, a prominent lion is carved into the center of the body of the ewer. From the articles, we know the lion represents the power and authority of the caliph. As a representation of the caliph himself, the lion is in the middle of the floral design, symbolic of the luxurious lifestyle of the court and the caliph’s place in the center of it all. This analysis agrees with both of the textual readings purpose and meaning. The ewer might have been a gift to a female of the court, as I imagined it holding wine in the chambers of the caliph’s harem; this being said, the lion motif could be an assertion of the caliphs dominance over the harem through the mere fact that it could’ve been a gift and its presence in private rooms. The arabesque patterns imply a sense of wealth and luxury, parallel to courtly lifestyle. The spout has a crown-like latch to open the mouth of the spout; this also has implications of a ruler. Its function and decorative elements go hand in hand to convey a message to the objects recipient. It is clear that the essence of gift-giving possesses underlying strategy for maintaining control within the caliphate kingdom. This piece is an example of caliphal power and the role in which objects play in maintaining relationships within the Umayyad dynasty.
Currently loving these elegant abstract paintings by Tracie Cheng. Based in Connecticut, Cheng combines her love for watercolor, architecture and abstraction to create these peaceful and fluid pieces. Discover her at // http://www.traciecheng.com
“So often we come across a multitude of things that are more complex than we’ll ever really know. Just being alive means acknowledging the seen and at times having to trust in the unseen. Layers and layers of story, encounter, joys, tensions are caked on, each layer just waiting to be known. We shall not ignore its presence. What is visible is not always the full picture, and what is beneath the surface can speak volumes. What is beneath the surface can make what you see what it truly is.
In my current practice, the challenge is how much and how many of these layers become the final product. It can be hard to know when to cover up or let fade away a part of the creation, and yet the work often becomes richer through this process. The lines and strokes inform my next steps, and the risks that I allow myself to take only enhance the direction the piece is headed. It is a play on space and depth, structure and fluidity – an unexpected natural evolution in a highly focused practice. I want to express a richness that cannot be seen and only experienced, so as to draw one in with questions of knowing more. I want a calm understanding to be felt, despite what you may never know. I want to find more possibility in the intangible, and allow for it to come into its own.” Courtesy of TracieCheng.com
FT33 is a restaurant in the Design District of Downtown Dallas, located at 1617 Hi Line Drive Suite 250. The rustic-chic restaurant is tucked away in one of the plazas around the area- a hidden gem. Decorated with woodwork and metal accents, the restaurant features an open kitchen and full bar. In addition to the trendy atmosphere, the food is incredible. Matt McCallister, Chef of the Year in 2013, is the head-hauncho of the kitchen and he’s not afraid to get creative.
FT33 is a farm to table culinary experience, from the in-house made cocktails to fresh products from local agriculturalists. Even the wood that decorates the interior is from a 19th century stable at Sterling Ranch at Hodges Ranch in West Texas. But this isn’t the most impressive aspect of the FT33 experience. I was immediately seated at a comfortable wooden table upon arrival. The room was full; waiters paced from kitchen to table, taking the time to converse with hungry diners. I spotted Matt from behind the open kitchen. The room was dimly lit, but the kitchen spotlights highlighted his face. Hard at work he swiftly and gracefully motioned to his crew. Dish rag in hand and with crossed eyebrows, he was in his element directing. This was his stage, he was the conductor and I was his audience. Orders were relayed between men and women; Matt decorated dishes, correcting his mistakes with the rag.
“I’m a horrible expeditor,” McCallister told Dallas Magazine. “I’m real ADD, and it’s best I plate and execute the food and watch the tables. I use vodka because it works best on getting any spots off the plates.”
The menu is small, making for a love-it or hate-it experience. From the turnip appetizer to the main course chicken, FT33 had my taste buds Ooo-ing and Ahh-ing. I was particularly impressed with the seasonal vegetable composition. Five vegetables served five different ways. The dish was served on a large beautiful slab of finished wood. Balsamic glazed carrots perched on top of carrot purée decorated with carrot shavings and a carrot chip. Next were the celery root, broccoli, sweet potato and onion, all served in the most creative forms dressed with delicious spices and oils. Dallas local or vacationing visitor, the FT33 experience puts you in a delicious world while encouraging your adventurous pallet. Five stars and bravo for FT33.
FT33 is open Tues-Thurs 6-10 p.m. for dining and 4:30-11 p.m. for the bar, Fri-Sat 6-11 p.m. for dining and 4:30-12 a.m. for the bar.
From left to right: Turnip. Spring herbs and greens. House made yogurt // Matt McCallister // 3rd Coast Catch, Kale, Button Mushrooms, Roast Chicken Jus…. via FT33 Instagram
Around 3 p.m., everyone who still has work to do needs a little something to keep ’em going!
I make a minty mock-tail with 3 ingredients: 1 can of Lemon La’Croix sparkling water, juice of 1 small lime and mint sprigs from my garden!
Lemon helps heart health, digestion, skin, immune system and is a grew source of Vitamin C. Mint is high in antioxidants, relieves allergies, is an anti-inflammatory, helps with indigestion and immune system, fights common cold and it tastes good!
The Meadows Museum, also called “Prado on the Prairie”, is part of the Southern Methodist University Meadows School of the Arts in Dallas, TX. It holds one of the largest private collections of Spanish art outside of Spain, with pieces that date from the 10th to the 20th century. Currently it is exhibiting for 3 months, one of the world’s greatest paintings: Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez’s (Spanish, 1599-1660) Infanta Margarita in a Blue Dress, 1659. Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Gemäldegalerie, Vienna..
“The other portrait [to be sent to Emperor Leopold I] was of the Most Serene Infanta Doña Margarita … of Austria, excellently painted and with the majesty and beauty of the original. To her right, on a small console table, there is an ebony clock of very elegant design, with bronze figures and animals; in its centre is a circle where the chariot of the sun is painted, and within the same circle there is a smaller one with the division of the Hours.” Courtesy of the Meadows Museum.
Courtesy of GOOP
This is crazy good. It’s healthy, it’s quick to throw together, and you won’t even miss the rice noodles. Promise. Substituting for carrot noodles is also delicious.
4 cups chicken stock
2 cups water
1 bone-in skin-on chicken breast
8 cilantro stems
1 3-inch long piece ginger, sliced
3 garlic cloves, smashed
juice of 1 lime
1 tablespoon maple syrup
1 tablespoon soy sauce
½ small white onion, very thinly sliced
1 zucchini, spiralized
1 small serrano chili, sliced
8 cilantro stems
4 sprigs fresh basil
1 handful mung bean sprouts
1 lime, quartered
1. Combine chicken stock, water, chicken, cilantro stems, ginger, garlic cloves and a large pinch of salt in a medium saucepan; the chicken should be just covered. Bring the liquid up to a boil, lower to a simmer, and poach for ten to fifteen minutes, or until completely cooked through.
2. Remove the chicken breast, shred the meat, and return the carcass to the saucepan. Simmer on low for 10 minutes while you prep the other ingredients. After ten minutes, strain the stock, return to the saucepan, and add the lime juice, maple syrup, soy sauce, and sliced onion. Taste for seasoning and add salt if desired.
3. Divide the spiralized zucchini and shredded chicken between two bowls. Ladle over the hot liquid, and serve with fresh herbs, chili, lime wedges, and sprouts on the side.
The Waco Farmers Market is a year-round riverside market where local entrepreneurs and artisan vendors are welcome to set up their tents and stoves to sell local products and cook fresh cuisines. The market takes place every Saturday, year-round, from 9-1p.m.
and Tuesdays, seasonally (April-July, October-November), 3-7 p.m. The river side park is located at 400 South University Parks Drive- be sure to look for the old Fire Tower and you will find it!
While visiting, I purchased locally grown carrots, spaghetti squash, spring onion, okra, peppers and broccoli. I also bought a bunch of lavender sticks for smoking meat! I can’t wait to try this with chicken!
To find out more information, please visit // http://wacodowntownfarmersmarket.com
All powerful & ever-living God, protect those at war.
Keep them safe through all their journeys.
Be their constant companion, their strength in battle & refuge in every adversity.
Guide them, O Lord, so that they may return home in safety & surround them with Your angels.
In Your name, I pray, Amen.
Anne Neilson Fine Art // http://anneneilsonhome.com
A happy birthday goes to my sweet friend Ali! We had so much fun celebrating at Auberge du Soleil.
“One of the first great Wine Country establishments, the Restaurant at Auberge du Soleil pays tribute to its legacy with an award-winning menu and wine list. Executive Chef Robert Curry’s inspired cuisine reflects the natural diversity and rich ingredients of California’s Napa Valley and draws from regional produce, accented with Mediterranean flavors. Wine Director Kris Margerum’s wine list, the largest and most extensive in the valley, showcases the very best from neighboring vineyards.
The Restaurant at Auberge du Soleil features rich interiors accented with abstract paintings, exposed beams and warm wood furnishings. Tables on the famous terrace are some of the best and most sought-after in Napa Valley where one can enjoy panoramic views of the neighboring vineyards and stunning sunsets. The adjacent Bistro & Bar, in a relaxed contemporary style, is an inviting setting in which to sip a cocktail by the fire, dine on lighter fare al fresco or enjoy one of the 40 wines served by the glass.”
Compliments of http://www.aubergedusoleil.com/napa-dining/restaurant
This eyeliner by Hourglass is the greatest liner I’ve ever used. It’s a gel liner with about 20 applications in one stick- they come in packs of three. It’s long lasting and super thin, giving your eyes definition for an all day smudge-less look 👍🏼
In the Cecil H and Ida M. Green Classical Galleries on the second floor of the Dallas Museum of Art, the classical portrait bust, Portrait Head of a Man [130-145 AD], sits in front of a window, elegantly spotlighted by the sun. The portrait dimensions overall include 13 ½ x 8 x 8 in (34.29 x 20.32 x 20.32 cm) and 4 in (10.16 cm) base dims. The medium is marble. The bust of the man appears to be in his early to mid 40’s. It is obvious that he is a handsome nobleman or of high social status because of his shallow beard, full head of curls and powerful gaze. He wears a pondering expression with pressed lips. His head is slightly turned and the marble appears to be broken at the base of the neck- as if he were a part of a greater statue. His strong jaw leads to a protruding chin covered in facial hair which represents the style of classical philosophers and creates a since of wisdom. The size of the bust seems to be to scale. The back of the head is brushed with a reddish-brown powdery stain- as if the head had been laid face up on the dirty substance for a long period of time.
The impressive work appears to have been created between the time of the late Hadrianic or early Antonine period. It is suspected that this portrait is of the Roman Emperor, Antoninus Pius, because of the similarities with other known portraits of him. This exceptional carving portrays the notoriously ‘slowwitted’ emperor having stronger features- a wrinkled brow, a thick neck with protruding veins and round eyes. During imperial Roman rule, artists who depicted their rulers glorified them by enhancing their physical beauty in portrait sculpture. It was important for rulers and noblemen to appear heroic and strong in their portraits to further represent and embody the strength of the Roman Empire. I believe that was the intension here in this portrait sculpture of a Roman ruler. In order to create this heavily detailed bust, the artist must’ve had either the man present or a print of his face. However, to help with the portrait sculpture process, when family members died, a wax print of members faces were made in order to preserve and replicate the faces into portrait sculptures. Reverence for the family and ‘clan ancestors’ was the focal point for Roman religion during the time this portrait was made. The Emperor most likely would have commissioned this portrait, since his features are slightly exaggerated.
Today we honor those who died this day fourteen years ago in the September 11th terrorist attack. We honor those in the military who sacrifice themselves to serve our country to prevent further deaths and harm. It is my hope that the grief for those who have died turn into a determination to preserve our freedom and blessings. As Americans, it is our duty to remember what is good, just and right and to stay united as one nation under God.
Currently obsessed with the ‘skinny dips’ at Dive Resturant // white bean and chickpea hummus, tomato basil dip, yogurt and cucumber dip paired with warm pita bread, sesame flat bread, carrots, cucumbers and celery
This pop-up exhibit encourages passerbys to create cocktails from everyday ingredients from your garden. A creative advertisement by Dobbies garden centre, this miniature garden display can be found on George Street, Edinburgh.
Apricot Royal // apricot preserves muddled in cognac, shakes and topped with prosecco
2015 marks the 800th year of the Magna Carta’s residency in Salisbury Cathedral. Latin for ‘the great charter’, the Magna Carta is a document that demanded justice among the people of England forced on King John by barons, who were unhappy with how he was ruling the country. The document stated the rights of the church, protected rights and wealth of aristocrats, set a standardization of weights and measures and enforced that no single person or ruler is above the law. This document on social justice inspired future democratic documents in history.